ASTONISHING REMAINS OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
ANCIENT EGYPT: A MAGNIFICENT CIVILIZATION IN TERMS OF ART AND SCIENCE
In one of the most magnificent civilizations in terms of art and science founded by humankind, the Ancient Egyptians possessed more knowledge and experience than could have been possible, had they been the "heirs" or continuation of some primitive society. Among the Egyptians, members of a deviant, pagan religion, there were Jewish workmen with a knowledge of art, which had its origins in the times of Prophets Noah and Abraham (peace be upon them). These skilled people used the knowledge they had learned from the days of the past prophets.
The Egyptians' mummification techniques demonstrate that they possessed advanced medical knowledge.
The Origins of Ancient Egyptian Medicine
The sophistication achieved by physicians in Ancient Egypt is quite amazing. Findings obtained from excavations have amazed archaeologists, because no historian expected such a highly developed technology in a civilization that existed in the 3,000s BCE.
X-ray analysis of mummies has revealed that brain surgery was performed in Ancient Egypt. 43 What is more, these operations were carried out using highly professional techniques. When mummy skulls that underwent surgery are examined, it can be seen that the incisions of the surgery have been cut very neatly. Skull bones that have fused back together prove that the patients survived long after such operations. 44
Another example concerns various medicines. Giant strides were made in medicine in the 19th century due to the rapid progress made in experimental science, including the discovery of antibiotics. Yet the word "discovery" is not strictly accurate, because many of these techniques had already been known to the Ancient Egyptians.45
The body of the Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamen was preserved inside two coffins, one inside the other.
Some of the most important evidence of just how advanced the Egyptians were in science and anatomy lies in the mummies they left behind them. They used hundreds of different techniques in the process of mummification, which permits the bodies of living things to be preserved for thousands of years.
The mummification process is highly complex. First, the brain and some of the internal organs of the deceased were removed using special instruments. The next stage in the procedure involved dehydrating the body for 40 days with natron. (Natron is a mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate with small amounts of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.) After the excessive body fluids were reduced, the body cavity was then stuffed with linen, sand or sawdust. The skin was anointed with special herbal preparations and then coated with liquid resin to further preserve it. Finally the body was carefully wrapped in linen bandages. 46
The Smith Papyrus, which describes how the ancient Egyptians used bandages made out of linen.
Mummification, carried out without damaging the shape of the body and by extracting all the deceased's internal organs, shows that those who performed it possessed a sufficient knowledge of anatomy to know the position of all the various organs.
Quite apart from the techniques of mummification, the Egyptians of 5,000 years ago enjoyed a wide range of other medical sophistication. For example:
-The priests involved in medicine in Egypt treated many diseases in their temples. Just as today, Egyptian doctors specialized in various fields of medicine. Every doctor, provided services in his own specialty.
-Doctors in Egypt were supervised by the state. If the patient failed to recover or died, the state would investigate the reasons why and determine whether the method of treatment employed by the doctor conformed to the rules. If any oversight was found to have taken place during treatment, the doctor was penalized within the framework of the law.
-Every temple possessed a well-equipped laboratory in which medicines were prepared and stored.
-The first steps in pharmacology, and the use of bandages and compresses, go back to Ancient Egyptian times. The Smith Papyrus (which is wholly concerned with medicine) describes how adhesive strips of linen—an ideal material for making bandages—were used to cover wounds.
-Archaeological findings have revealed a detailed picture of medical practices in Egypt. In addition, the names and titles of more than 100 doctors specializing in their own fields have been discovered.
-In reliefs on a wall of the temple at Kom Ombo, a box of surgical instruments is carved. This box contained metal shears, surgical knives, saws, probes, spatulas, small hooks and forceps.
-The techniques employed were numerous and varied. Breaks and fractures were set, splints employed and wounds closed with stitches. Fractures that healed after treatment with great success have been found in many mummies.
-Although no trace of surgical scars has been found in mummies, there are 13 references to wound suturing in the Smith Papyrus. This indicates that the Egyptians managed proper wound suturing, employing linen thread. The needles were in all probability made out of copper.
-Egyptian doctors were able to distinguish between sterile wounds and infected ones. They used a mixture of ibex fat, fir oil and crushed peas to clean infected wounds.
-Penicillin and antibiotics were discovered relatively recently. However, the Ancient Egyptians used the first organic versions of these and other different types of antibiotic, and wrote prescriptions suited to various types of disease. 47
Along with these major strides in medicine, excavations have also revealed that the Egyptians were very interested in such subjects as urban planning and architecture.
Advanced Metallurgy in Ancient Egypt
In the general sense, metallurgy is the branch of science and technology involving the refining from raw materials, shaping and preservation of metals and their compounds. An examination of Ancient Egyptian civilization shows that between 3,000 and 3,500 years ago, the Egyptians had become expert at extracting and working various minerals and metals, especially gold, copper and iron. Their highly developed metallurgy shows that the Egyptians were advanced in finding, extracting and working ores, and had a highly developed knowledge of chemistry.
(1, 2) Finely worked pectorals of the king, crafted of gold, silver and semi-precious stones
(3) A pair of finely crafted sandals
(4) A small, long-spouted pitcher made of hard gold still maintains its strength and brightness.
Archaeological research has revealed that the Egyptians were producing detailed work on copper ore and producing metallic compounds in around 3,400 BCE. In the Fourth Dynasty (around 2,900 BCE), mining research and operations were monitored by very high-ranking officials and are known to have been supervised by Pharaoh's sons.
In addition to copper, the Ancient Egyptians often used iron. Tin was used to create bronze, and cobalt to color glass. Metals not naturally occurring in Egypt were imported from other regions, particularly from Persia.
Their most frequently used and highly prized metal was gold. Hundreds of gold mines have been discovered in Egypt and parts of modern-day Sudan. One papyrus dating back to the 14th century BCE contains the plans of a gold mine near Apollinopolis, revealing the Ancient Egyptians' professionalism on the subject. The papyrus describes the construction of more than 1,300 dwellings around the mine just to accommodate those working in it. From this, the importance of goldsmithing and the art of jewelry in Ancient Egypt is apparent. Indeed, the hundreds of decorative golden objects discovered in archaeological excavations are indications that the Ancient Egyptians were expert miners and metalworkers.
This also goes to show that the Egyptians possessed the scientific knowledge and technology needed to identify seams of metal, extract ore from them, refine the metals thus extracted, and combine them to produce alloys.
(5) This golden ornament found at the neck of Tutankhamen's mummy contains very fine gold workmanship; around 150 other jewels were found on the same mummy.
(6) A gold-plated wooden chest set on a silver-plated sledge
(7) A pectoral made of gold, lapis lazuli and turquoise, discovered at Tanis
The fine workmanship in the jewels shows that sophisticated goldsmith's tools were employed. In the absence of such equipment, such fine workmanship is impossible. The quality and delicacy of Egyptian gold workmanship is equal to that of the present day.
Ancient Egyptian Urban Planning and Infrastructure
One indication of the Egyptians' advanced civilization is doubtless their knowledge of architecture and engineering.
Egypt's arid climate has left behind many clues to their civilization, evidencing that ancient Egyptian cities had a highly developed infrastructure.
Certainly a highly developed infrastructure shows that those who built these cities had an advanced knowledge of architecture and engineering.How far down underground foundations need to be dug, where the supporting beams need to be placed, how an effective ventilation system needs to be planned, the arrangement of pathways for clean and dirty water so they do not mix, and a great many other details must be considered. And, most important of all, no errors can be made in any of them. The Egyptians knew all these techniques, and the buildings they left behind prove this.
The architectural techniques they used in the 3,000s BCE were exceedingly professional and intended to resolve difficulties and problems of infrastructure. Water is of great importance to an arid country like Egypt. In fact, they found permanent solutions to the problem, including the tanks they built in which to store water.
A large reserve of water discovered in the Fayum oasis depression is one of these. The Egyptians also built some artificial lakes to ensure that life could continue in specific regions. These small lakes collected water from the Nile, making possible an advanced civilization in the Egyptian desert. They constructed Lake Moeris, 80 kilometers (50 miles) southwest of present-day Cairo, for the purpose of storing water from the River Nile by means of a canal. Settlements and temples were constructed near this reservoir. 48
The Egyptians' knowledge of medicine, urban planning, and engineering and how it should be put into practice are just some of the evidence of the exceptionally advanced civilization that they possessed. Their knowledge and the measures they implemented once again refute the thesis that societies progress from a primitive state to a civilized one. A society that existed 5,000 years ago possessed a more advanced level of civilization than some communities living in the same country today, something that cannot be explained in terms of "evolutionary progress." There's also no doubt that during the time when the Egyptians were enjoying their advanced civilization, there were more backward communities with people living under more primitive conditions in Africa and other parts of the world. Yet none of these individuals had any features that were less than human, nor any supposedly ape-like traits. The Egyptians, other people living in primitive conditions at the same period, as well as them and human communities that existed hundreds of thousands of years ago, have all been as entirely human as present-day Man, in all respects. Some communities may have lived in more advanced conditions and others in more backward ones, but this does not show, as Darwinists maintain, that they are descended from apes or that one race evolved from another. Such an interpretation is a violation of science, reason and logic.
Ancient Egyptians' Achievements in Textiles
Examples of linen, dating back to Ancient Egypt
It can be seen from fragments of linen cloth that have survived from 2,500 BCE that the Egyptians produced very high-quality fabrics, in terms of both materials and weaving. Most important of all, however, are the details in the weaving of the cloth. In 2,500 BCE, the Ancient Egyptians were producing delicate fibers of the kind that are made today in machinery equipped with advanced technology, which linen was used for wrapping around mummies. The delicate weaving of these fabrics has amazed Egyptologists. 49 These specimens are so fine that one needs a magnifying glass to distinguish them from silk, and this fabric is comparable with the best work of the present-day machine loom. 50 Even today these fabrics are renowned for their quality, and the Egyptian linen made today owes its fame to the weavers who lived in the 2,000s BCE.
An Advanced Level of Mathematics
The Rhind Papyrus
Numbers were used in Ancient Egypt from very early times. Papyruses from 2,000 BCE describing mathematical problems have been found. The four most referred to documents are known as the Kahun fragments, and Berlin, Moscow and Rhind papyruses. These documents state, with examples, the bases on which measurements are made. The Egyptians knew that a triangle whose sides measure 3:4:5 is a right triangle, and made use of this knowledge (which is now called the Pythagoras Theorem) in their construction calculations. 51
In addition, the Egyptians knew the difference between planets and stars. They added the stars, some of which are very hard to see with the naked eye, to their studies of astronomy.
And since the Egyptians' lives were dependent on the Nile, they had to check its level during its annual floods. The ruler had a "Nilometer" made to measure the height of the river waters, and appointed officials for that purpose. 52
A Construction Technology Full of Secrets
The most important structures built in Ancient Egypt, at which visitors still gaze in wonder today, are the mysterious pyramids. The most magnificent of them is the Great Pyramid, regarded as the largest stone edifice constructed in the world to date. Historians and archaeologists since the time of Herodotus have put forward various theories as to how this pyramid was built. Some have maintained that slaves were used in its construction and have suggested several different possible techniques, from the ramp technique to a terraced pyramid. The complete picture that emerges from these hypothetical methods is this:
-Had this pyramid been built by slaves, then their number would be extraordinarily high, in the range of 240,000.
-Had a ramp been built to construct the pyramid, then it would have taken some eight years to dismantle this ramp after the pyramid was completed. This theory, according to the Danish civil engineer Garde-Hanson, is ridiculous, because once the ramp had been torn down, giant rough blocks would have been left over. Yet no such evidence is to be seen anywhere. 53
Stating that Garde-Hanson has considered aspects underestimated by other theoreticians, Moustafa Gadalla, in his book Historical Deception: The Untold Story of Ancient Egypt, goes on to say:
Try to visualize the staggering figures as you visit the pyramid: 4,000 year-round quarrymen producing 330 blocks per day. During inundation season, 4,000 blocks per day are transported to the Nile, ferried across, hauled up the ramp to the Giza plateau, and set into place in the core—a rate of 6.67 blocks per minute! Imagine 6.67 blocks every 60 seconds! 54
-In addition, bear in mind the fact that the surface area of each pyramid face is some 5.5 acres. Then some 115,000 casing stones were needed for each surface. These stones have been so scrupulously laid in place that the gaps between them are too small to permit even a piece of paper to fit between them. 55
These are just some of the objections that show that the secrets regarding the construction of the pyramids have still not been resolved by the twenty-first-century science and technology.
Striking facts about the Pyramid of Giza
Some of the research onto the pyramids at Giza has shown that the Ancient Egyptians possessed a highly developed knowledge of mathematics and geometry. In addition to their knowledge of mathematics and geometry, the people who planned the pyramids must also have known the measurements of the Earth, its circumference, and the angle of tilt of its axis. This information about the pyramids, whose construction began around 2,500 BCE, is even more striking when one considers that they were built some 2,000 years before the great Greek mathematicians Pythagoras, Archimedes and Euclid:
- The angles of the Great Pyramid divide the Nile delta region into two equal halves.
- The three pyramids of Giza have been arranged so as to form a Pythagorean triangle, whose sides have the proportions 3:4:5.
- The proportion between the height of the pyramid and its circumference is equal to that between the radius of a circle and its circumference.
- The Great Pyramid is a giant sundial. The shadows it casts between mid-October and the beginning of March reflect the seasons and the length of the year. The length of the stone slabs around the pyramid is equivalent to the length of one day's shadow.
- The normal length of the square base of the pyramid is equal to 365.342 Egyptian yards (a unit of measurement of the time). This is very close to the number of days in a solar year (which has been calculated at 365.224 days).
- The distance between the Great Pyramid and the center of the Earth is equivalent to that between the pyramid and the North Pole.
- In the pyramid, the perimeter of the base divided by twice its height is the number Pi.
The total surface area of the pyramid's four sides is equal to the square of its height. 56
If One Wished to Rebuild the Pyramids ...
The Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu)consists of some 2.5 million stone blocks. Assume that ten blocks were laid every day—which would require an enormous effort on the part of the workers—then it would take 684 years to lay all 2.5 million blocks. Yet it is thought that such pyramids in question took an average of only 20 to 30 years to build. Just this simple calculation reveals that when constructing the pyramids, the Egyptians used a very different and superior technology.
In 1978, the Indiana Limestone Institute of America, Inc.—one of the world's leading authorities on limestone—carried out a thought-provoking feasibility study to learn what size workforce and what kind of materials would be needed to build a pyramid similar to the Great Pyramid of Giza. The company officials described the difficulty involved, noting that if they tripled present-day average production, quarrying, fabricating and shipping such a quantity of limestone would take approximately 27 years. In addition, all this work would be done using modern American technology—in other words, hydraulic hammers and electrical crystal-headed saws. Enormous effort would be needed just to quarry and transport the limestone, not including the laboratory tests necessary for the building of the Pyramid, nor any other such preparatory work. 57
So how did the Ancient Egyptians build these giant pyramids? By what power, with what machinery, by what techniques were the rock terraces set out? By what means were the rock tombs carved out? How was lighting provided during construction? (No staining or soot has been found on the walls or ceilings inside the pyramids and tombs.) How were blocks of stone removed from the quarries, and how were the differently shaped faces of the blocks smoothed? How were these blocks, weighing several tons, transported, and how were they fit together to an accuracy of 1/1000 of a centimeter? The list of questions could be a lot longer. Can they be answered in a logical and rational way through the evolutionist misconception of mankind's history? Of course not!
Buildings constructed by past societies using giant stones indicate that machinery similar to that used in modern construction must have been employed in the past. The resemblance of this decorative object of gold to construction machinery is striking. Discovered in Panama in the 1920s, this item is believed to have been hung as a pendant. This and similar discoveries refute evolutionist claims that past societies were completely primitive. There have been obvious advances in technology and knowledge accumulated throughout the course of history, but this does not mean that people in the past lived like animals. Past societies developed various devices and used machinery in light of their own requirements.
Top right: Probable model of a backhoe of the period
Bottom right: Model of a present-day backhoe
With their art, medicine and culture, the Ancient Egyptians produced a giant civilization. The works they left behind, the medical therapies they used and the accumulated knowledge and experience they possessed are some of the most important proofs of this. Some scientists today even claim that the works produced by the Egyptians—for whom, according to the evolution of history thesis, the building of pyramids must have been exceedingly difficult—were actually made by extraterrestrial visitors.
Detail of the back-panel of Tutankhamen's royal throne, Cairo, Egyptian Museum
Of course, any such claim is exceptionally irrational and illogical. Yet evolutionists hide behind it since all their demagoguery is unable to provide a better explanation. First and foremost, there is not the slightest evidence to support their claim. When evolutionists realize that they cannot produce any explanation based on chance or imaginary evolutionary process, they immediately hide behind the idea of "visitors from space." Indeed, they came up with this ridiculous idea when they realized that the DNA in the cell nucleus and the first protein, representing the fundamental building block of life, had far too complex and extraordinary structures to have arisen by chance from inanimate substances. And so, visitors from space must have brought the first living organism to the Earth and left it behind. This ridiculous claim is one of the telltale signs of the despairing position evolutionists find themselves in.
The civilization in ancient Egypt—and all the other civilizations down through history—were all founded by people possessed of reason and will. Today, we are amazed by artifacts dating back to 3,000 BCE, and scientists and experts in the field debate how these could have been created. But what really matters is that the civilization of 5,000 years ago, whose traces can be seen today, was obviously built with an experience and sophisticated knowledge accumulated over thousands of years. In other words, the roots of this ancient civilization go back even further. That means that in the very earliest times there were no primitive, half-animal humans lacking the power of speech, and living solely by hunting, as is claimed by proponents of the evolution of history. Ever since the first human was created, Man has enjoyed the same human characteristics such as intelligence, conception of beauty, understanding, consciousness and moral values, as does Man today.
The Model Glider in Ancient Egyptian Tombs
Remains left behind by many civilizations indicate that air transport was used in very ancient times. This can clearly be seen in Mayan ruins, pictures in the Egyptian pyramids, and Sumerian inscriptions. As far as we can tell, people were building and using vehicles similar to gliders, airplanes, and helicopters thousands of years ago.
In fact, the Qur'an indicates that air transport may have been used long ago:
And We gave Solomon power over the wind—a month's journey in the morning and a month in the afternoon. (Qur'an, 34:12)
It is very likely that the long distances referred to in this verse could have been traveled quickly in Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) day. This transportation may have taken place by means of wind-powered vehicles using a technology similar to that found in planes today. (God knows the truth.)
A model glider estimated to date back to 200 BCE
One piece of evidence that past civilizations employed air transportation is a model glider found in Egypt. This model, discovered in 1898, has been dated at about 200 BCE. Of course, finding a model glider some 2,200 years old is a rather remarkable event. This archaeological finding completely undermines the evolutionist conception of history. An even more interesting picture emerges when the model's technical features are examined. The shape and proportions of this wooden model's wings were designed in such a way as to give the aircraft a maximum lift with a minimum loss of speed, as in the Concorde, the product of today's most advanced technology. This also shows that the ancient Egyptians had a very good knowledge of aerodynamics.
How many wrongdoing cities We destroyed, and now all their roofs and walls are fallen in; how many abandoned wells and stuccoed palaces!
Did Electricity Exist in Ancient Egypt?
Reliefs in the temple of Hathor at Dendera have revealed the possibility that the Ancient Egyptians knew about and used electricity. When the figures in this relief are carefully examined, you can see that, just like today, high-voltage insulation must have been used at that time: A bulb-like shape is supported by a rectangular pillar (called the Djed pillar and assumed to be an insulator). This resemblance between the shape in the picture and electric lamps is astonishing. 58 While analyzing ancient Egyptian metal objects in 1933, Dr. Colin G. Fink—who invented the tungsten filament electric light bulb—found that the Egyptians knew a method of plating antimony on copper over 4,300 years ago. This was a method by which the same results accomplished today by electroplating were achieved. 59
The resemblance to today's light bulbs of the figures in these reliefs from the Temple of Hathor at Dendera has amazed scientists.
Scientists have experimented with the system depicted in the reliefs to determine whether it could have emitted light. The Austrian electrical engineer Walter Garn studied the reliefs in great detail, and reproduced the Djed pillar insulator, bulb and twisting wire. The model he built did indeed work and emit light. 60
The Djed pillar, frequently shown in Egyptian drawings, may symbolize a kind of electrical apparatus. The column may have served as a generator, thus providing lighting.
One piece of evidence that Ancient Egyptians may have used electricity is the absence of any traces of soot on the interior walls of their tombs and pyramids. If—as evolutionist archaeologists maintain—they used burning torches and oil lamps for lighting, then traces of soot would inevitably have been left behind. Yet there are no such traces anywhere, not even in the very deepest chambers. It would have been impossible for construction to continue without the necessary lighting being provided nor, even more importantly, for the magnificent murals to have been painted on the walls. This strengthens the possibility that electricity was, indeed, used in Ancient Egypt.
43. Moustafa Gadalla, Historical Deception: The Untold Story of Ancient Egypt, Bastet Publishing, Erie, Pa., USA, 1996, pp. 295, 296.
44. Interview with Dr. Zahi Hawass, Director of the Pyramids, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/excavation/hawass.html
45. Gadalla, Historical Deception, p. 296
47. Afet İnan, Eski Mısır Tarihi ve Medeniyet (Ancient Egyptian History and Civilization), Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1956, p. 318.
48. Ibid., p. 87.
49. Ibid., p. 201.
50. James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times or A History of the Early World, 1916, p. 64.
51. Moustafa Gadalla, Egyptian Harmony: The Visual Music, NC: Tehuti Research Foundation, 2000, p. 64.
53. Gadalla, Historical Deception, p. 115
54. Ibid., p. 116.
56. The Eyes of the Sphinx, NY: Berkley Publishing Group, 1996, pp. 118-119.
57. 2 Nova Productions, Who Built the Pyramids, www.pbs.org
58. Frank Dörnenburg, "Electric Lights in Egypt?", http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_lights_fd1.htm
59. William R. Corliss, Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts, Maryland: The Sourcebook Project, 1978, p. 443.